In some instances, when confronted with decisions, officers may want to rely on utilitarianism to make an ethical decision that is defensible when scrutinized in the future. This article focuses on perhaps the most important dividing line among utilitarians, the clash between act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. A key point in this article concerns the distinction between individual actions and types of actions. When we ask whether a rule should be adopted, it is essential to consider the impact of the rule on all people and to weigh the interests of everyone equally. Similarly, if a government is choosing a policy, it should give equal consideration to the well-being of all members of the society. Only a set of rules and laws that will lead to the greatest outcome for the greatest number of people. the maximise the amount of good in the world. All utilitarians agree that things are valuable because they tend to produce well-being or diminish ill-being, but this idea is understood differently by hedonists, objective list theorists, and preference/desire theorists. This is not beneficial to the parties involved. It asks more than can reasonably be expected of people. Bentham came to the conclusion that the best government should follow the principle of “the greatest good for the greatest number of people”. Rule utilitarians tend to agree with these criticisms of act utilitarianism and try to explain why rule utilitarianism is not open to any of these objections. When exercising this discretion, officers will be confronted on a daily basis with issues that are complex, and may not be covered in the agency’s policy and most certainly would not have been covered in their formal education or police academy or other training. This is because the rule … Rule utilitarians offer a similar analysis of the promise keeping case. In the example above, the general rule would be: ‘share your wealth’. But, they say, neither of these is true. Justifications of moral rules, he claims, must be strictly impartial. Unfortunately, the examination should begin long before the natural delivery and will hurt the child or even kill him. Foreseeable consequence utilitarians accept the distinction between evaluating actions and evaluating the people who carry them out, but they see no reason to make the moral rightness or wrongness of actions depend on facts that might be unknowable. what actions could be performed), predict their outcomes, and approve of the action that will produce the most good. Happiness is long-term, focusing on the satisfaction of living well, or achieving life goals. Therefore, some utilitarians, the so-called utilitarians of the rule, believe that it is necessary to determine which set of the specific installations will provide the maximum benefit, and always be guided by them. Rule worship is a serious concern for Rule Utilitarianism. “John Stuart Mill on Economic Justice and the Alleviation of Poverty,” in. J. J. C. Smart (49) explains this difference by imagining the action of a person who, in 1938,saves someone from drowning. Critics also attack utilitarianism’s commitment to impartiality and the equal consideration of interests. In addition, if you enjoy both chocolate and strawberry, you should predict which flavor will bring you more pleasure and choose whichever one will do that. Get your personal promo code to your e-mail! In a series of essays, Goodin argues that utilitarianism is the best philosophy for public decision-making even if it fails as an ethic for personal aspects of life. According to Kant, if A is trying to murder B and A asks you where B is, it would be wrong for you to lie to A, even if lying would save B’s life (Kant). the ones the rescuer could reasonably predict), then the rescuer—who could not predict the negative effects of saving the person from drowning—did the right thing. Although this case is very simple, it shows that we can have objectively true answers to questions about what actions are morally right or wrong. The most common argument against act utilitarianism is that it gives the wrong answers to moral questions. 1.2 Ethics and the Pursuit of a Law Enforcement Career, 1.3 As Employees in Law Enforcement Agencies, Chapter 3: Ethical Dilemmas and the Process of Effective Resolution, Chapter 4: Key Ethical Issues within Law Enforcement, 4.4 Person, Gender, and Cultural Differences in Conformity, 4.5 Ethical Issues during an Investigation, Chapter 5: Accountability and Investigation, 5.3 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act, 6.2 Policing Public Demonstrations and Crowd Control, Chapter 7: Discretion, Supervision, and Leadership, 7.6 Transactional and Transformational Leadership, Chapter 8: The Culture of Law Enforcement, 8.4 Moral Culpability versus Legal Culpability, Appendix.
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